Decades of research—many included in a comprehensive meta-analysis for the Review of Educational Research—document strong positive results for the Direct Instruction model. That isn’t to say it’s the only successful pedagogy approach. There’s ample evidence that student-centered experimental, inquiry-based, and non-directive learning encourages students to think critically, foster genuine curiosity, and cultivate characteristics such as self-reliance and tenacity. But when is Direct Instruction most effective and what lessons lend themselves to this specific style?
When weighing the various teaching approaches, deciding what will work best for your particular students for each lesson can be challenging. Some guidance exists in an Educational Leadership magazine article analysis, where college professor and administrator Penelope L. Peterson notes that students did slightly better on achievement tests after receiving direct teaching but marginally worse on tests of abstract thinking concepts. On the other hand, students under an “open teaching” model emphasizing student choices and more individual or small-group work than large-group instruction did somewhat better on creativity and problem-solving but worse on achievement tests.
Because the Direct Instruction approach lends itself to topics requiring a solid factual foundation, mastering specific skills, or comprehending step-by-step processes, here are some ways to use Direct Instruction in various subjects.
Direct Instruction can be ideal for teaching math, particularly when students learn new mathematical concepts or procedures. Teachers can provide step-by-step instructions, show examples, and guide students through practice exercises. Teachers can use Direct Instruction for problem-solving by giving examples of problems and guiding students through the problem-solving process. Students can learn graph and data analysis through Direct Instruction by learning how to choose the appropriate graph type, label the axes, and interpret the data. Math generally involves a lot of procedural knowledge, so Direct Instruction can help break down complex mathematical processes into more manageable steps. Many math concepts build upon one another, and it’s essential to have a solid understanding of the basics before moving on and adding more advanced topics. Direct Instruction also incorporates plenty of practice, perfect for implementing new math formulas and equations.
Direct Instruction can be an effective approach to teaching science concepts, particularly when students are first learning basic scientific facts and procedures. Teachers can use hands-on activities to show students how scientific principles work and explain the steps involved in the process. Scientific subject matter will also implement teaching that involves students conducting experiments. It’s much easier to understand how elements react or how light behaves, for example, through experimentation than Direct Instruction. It’s important to note that many scientific areas that benefit from experiments, including physics, chemistry, and biology, also require a strong understanding of basic foundational concepts effectively taught through Direct Instruction. Every experiment, from baking soda volcanos to advanced high school chemistry, requires students to follow precise, step-by-step instructions and specific processes—also best taught via a teacher-directed approach.
Direct Instruction can be a helpful approach to teaching specific language arts skills. Many language skills can be broken down into smaller, more manageable parts, helping students incrementally build their skills and abilities as they progress. Using it to teach specific grammar rules, such as subject-verb agreement or punctuation usage, teachers can explain the rule, provide examples, and guide students through practice exercises. For teaching vocabulary words, teachers can introduce the word, give a definition, and offer examples of how the term is used in context. Direct Instruction can help you teach students how to analyze literary texts, such as poems or short stories. For example, teachers can guide students through a close reading of the text, asking questions about the plot, characters, and themes while introducing literary techniques the author uses. In writing, Direct Instruction can be used to teach how to write a thesis statement or how to structure an essay. Teachers can provide models of good writing, explain the writing process, and offer feedback on student writing.
Learning new languages is often best accomplished through a structured approach focused on rules and attributes of vocabulary, grammar, and syntax. To teach foreign language vocabulary and grammar rules, teachers can explain the meaning of new words, demonstrate correct pronunciation, and guide students through practice exercises. The Direct Instruction method can also help students develop their speaking and listening skills in a foreign language. Teachers can model correct sentence structure and pronunciation, provide feedback on student speaking, and guide students through practice conversations. To teach students about the culture and customs of countries where the foreign language is spoken, teachers can provide information on cultural norms, such as greetings and social customs, and help students understand how to navigate these norms in a foreign language setting.
Social studies subject areas, such as history and geography, often require that students memorize large amounts of information. When students must comprehend new information and commit it to memory for future recall, Direct Instruction helps break it down into smaller, more manageable chunks while providing students strategies for organizing, remembering, and implementing the info. During read-aloud sessions, teachers can guide students through discussions and provide explanations to help students understand the text. Teachers can show students how to research and select important events and help them understand how events relate in a timeline. Direct Instruction can help teach students how to read and interpret maps, such as political or topographic maps, and how to identify important geographic features.
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